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WISENET
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WISENET is a wireless sensor network that monitors the environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and humidity. This network is comprised of nodes called motes that form an ad-hoc network to transmit this data to a computer that function as a server.

The server stores the data in a database where it can later be retrieved and analyzed via a web-based interface. The network works successfully with an implementation of one sensor mote.
Post: #2
i want the report
Post: #3
[attachment=519]
Post: #4
Introduction:
The technological drive for smaller devices using less power with greater functionality has created new potential applications in the sensor and data acquisition sectors. Low-power microcontrollers with RF transceivers and various digital and analog sensors allow a wireless, battery-operated network of sensor modules ("motes") to acquire a wide range of data. The TinyOS is a real-time operating system to address the priorities of such a sensor network using low power, hard real-time constraints, and robust communications.

The first goal of WISENET is to create a new hardware platform to take advantage of newer microcontrollers with greater functionality and more features. This involves selecting the hardware, designing the motes, and porting TinyOS. Once the platform is completed and TinyOS was ported to it, the next stage is to use this platform to create a small-scale system of wireless networked sensors.

System Description:
There are two primary subsystems (Data Analysis and Data Acquisition) comprised of three major components (Client, Server, Sensor Mote Network).
Primary Subsystems:
There are two top-level subsystems -
Data Analysis
Data Acquisition.

Data Analysis:
This subsystem is software-only (relative to WISENET). It relied on existing Internet and web (HTTP) infrastructure to provide communications between the Client and Server components. The focus of this subsystem was to selectively present the collected environmental data to the end user in a graphical manner.
Data Acquisition:
The purpose of this subsystem is to collect and store environmental data for later processing by the Data Analysis subsystem. This is a mix of both PC & embedded system software, as well as embedded system hardware. It is composed of both the Server and Sensor Mote Network components.

WISENET includes a socketed evaluation board (CC1010EB) and two evaluation modules (CC1010EM). The evaluation board provided access to all of the analog and digital pins on the CC1010, as well as two serial ports, a parallel programming port, RF network analysis ports, and other peripherals. Each evaluation module featured the CC1010, RF network hardware, an antenna port, and an analog temperature sensor. The modules connected to the evaluation board via two TFM-D sockets. These sockets also allowed the possibility of designing a custom expansion board.
WISENET is designed to measure light, temperature, and humidity. There are many digital temperature sensors available, but there is a much smaller selection of digital humidity and light sensors. A larger selection of analog sensors are available; however, analog sensors tended to require more power and be less precise than their digital counterparts, in addition to requiring more complex circuitry. For these reasons, digital sensors are given higher priority. Two new sensors provided the required functionality. First, Sensirion released the SHT11, a digital temperature and humidity sensor with ultra low power consumption (550 MicroA while measuring, 1 MicroA when in sleep mode), a 14 bit analog to digital converter, and the desired accuracy (?5% relative humidity, ?3?C). It also featured a simple serial interface.

The light sensor chosen was the Texas Advanced Optoelectonic Solutions (TAOS) TSL2550 ambient light sensor with SMBus interface. This sensor also featured ultra-low power (600 MicroA active, 10 MicroA power down), a 12-bit analog to digital converter, and dual photo diodes. The TSL2550 uses both photo diodes to compensate for infrared light and to produce a measurement that approximates the human eye response.
Post: #5
[attachment=1967]
ABSTRACT
WISENET is a wireless sensor network that monitors the environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and humidity. This network is comprised of nodes called "motes" that form an ad-hoc network to transmit this data to a computer that function as a server. The server stores the data in a database where it can later be retrieved and analyzed via a web-based interface. The network works successfully with an implementation of one sensor mote.
The technological drive for smaller devices using less power with greater functionality has created new potential applications in the sensor and data acquisition sectors. Low-power microcontrollers with RF transceivers and various digital and analog sensors allow a wireless, battery-operated network of sensor modules ("motes") to acquire a wide range of data. The TinyOS is a real-time operating system to address the priorities of such a sensor network using low power, hard real-time constraints, and robust communications.
1. INTRODUCTION
The last few years have seen the emergence of numerous new wireless technologies have reached the market recently. While the general trend is to offer higher and higher data rates, there are many existing and new applications that do not require such a high bandwidth, but would strongly benefit from a wireless communication link. Examples of such applications are wireless sensor networks. In this perspective, the Microelectronics Division has launched a project called WISENET. Its main objective is to develop a low-power wireless ad-hoc network made of many distributed microsensors that are energetically autonomous and able to communicate amongst them and with the external world. WISENET will enable the monitoring and the control of physical and environmental parameters for a variety of applications. For example, WISENET will monitor security and safety in the future homes and offices
The first goal of WISENET is to create a new hardware platform to take advantage of newer microcontrollers with greater functionality and more features. This involves selecting the hardware, designing the motes, and porting TinyOS. Once the platform is completed and TinyOS was ported to it, the next stage is to use this platform to create a small-scale system of wireless networked sensors.
2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
There are two primary subsystems (Data Analysis and Data Acquisition) comprised of three major components (Client, Server, Sensor Mote Network).
2.1) Primary Subsystems:
There are two top-level subsystems -
Data Analysis Data Acquisition.
2.1.1) Data Analysis:
This subsystem is software-only (relative to WISENET). It relied on existing Internet and web (HTTP) infrastructure to provide communications between the Client and Server components The focus of this subsystem was to selectively present the collected environmental data to the end user in a graphical manner.
2.1.2) Data Acquisition:
The purpose of this subsystem is to collect and store environmental data for later processing by the Data Analysis subsystem. This is a mix of both PC & embedded system software, as well as embedded system hardware. It is composed of both the Server and Sensor Mote Network components.
3. SYSTEM COMPONENTS
System components are Client, Server, and Sensor Mote Network.
CLIENT SERVER SENSOR MOTE NETWORK
Internet
HTTP
Office2
TCP/IP
HTTP Server
RS232 SERIAL
Gateway
~~i W
980MHZ RF Comm.
Officel
System
1
Wise DB
Web Program
TCP/IP
Lab A
LabB
Web Browser
TCP/IP
SQL
Database
Data Analysis Subsystem
Data Acquisition Subsystem
Figure 1: WISENET System Block Diagram
3.1) Client:
The Client component is necessary but external to the development of WISENET. That is, any computer with a web browser and Internet access could be a Client. It served only as a user interface to the Data Analysis subsystem.
3.2) Server:
The Server is a critical component as the link between the Data Acquisition and Data Analysis subsystems On the Data Analysis side, an web (HTTP) server hosting a web application. When a page request came in, the web server executes the web application, which retrieved data from the database, processes it, and returns a web page that the web server transmitted to the Client. For the Data Acquisition system there is a daemon (WiseDB) running to facilitate communication with the Sensor Mote Network.
CLIENT
SENSOR NETWORK
WEB page Requests
SERVER
Inputs & Outputs
Data packets
(Via GATEWAY MOTE)
CLIENT
SENSOR NETWORK
Requested WEB page
Commands
Figure 3: Server Components Inputs/Outputs
This daemon is responsible for collecting raw data packets from the Sensor Mote Network. These packets are then processed to convert the raw data into meaningful environmental data. This processed data is then inserted into the database. Thus the database is the link between the Data Analysis and Data Acquisition subsystems. The Server also had the potential to send commands to the Sensor Mote Network (via the gateway mote), although this functionality was not explored in WISENET.
It should be noted that since the SQL database connections can be made via TCP/IP, only the web server and web-program (see figure 4) needed to be located on the same physical machine. The web server, the database, and WiseDB could all be on different physical machmes connected via a LAN or the Internet. This allows a flexible Server component implementation that is useful during WISENET development.
CLIENT. HTTP Server

WEB Program
TinyOS Daemon WISEDB
SE>SOR NETWORK

(GATEWAY MOTE)

TCP/IP SQL TCP/IP
Database
w

Figure 4: Server Component Block Diagram
3.3) SENSOR MOTES
SERVER PC p
COMMANDS
SENSOR MOTES
SENSOR NETWORK
(GATEWAY MOTE)
ONLY INPUTS
&
ž SERVER PC OUTPUTS
DATA PACKETS
Figur
The primary focus of WISENET is the development of the Sensor Mote Network component. It is the component responsible for collecting and transmitting raw environmental data to the Server. There is also the potential for the motes to receive commands from the Server, although that functionality may not be implemented in WISENET. Uses for this feature would mclude server-based synchronization and wireless network reprogramrning.
t SENSOR NETWORK DATA PACKETS
SENSOR NETWORK

DATA PACKETS
4 ENVIRONMENT HUMIDITY, LIGHT etc.,
nits/Outputs
This component consists of two parts. The first is the sensor mote. The primary purpose of the sensor mote is to collect and transmit raw environmental data. When not doing this, it went into a low-power idle mode to conserve energy. Another aspect of the sensor motes involved ad-hoc networking and may be for multi-hop routing;
The gateway mote is the second part of the Sensor Mote Network. Its purpose is to serve as the liaison between the Server and the Sensor Mote Network and deliver all the data packets to WiseDB In theory both standard and gateway motes could be implemented on the same hardware PCB and with the same software. For WISENET, however, resource and time constraints necessitated the use of slightly different hardware and software configurations for gateway versus standard motes,
i
as described below. j
4. HARDWARE DESIGN
The selection of components for the sensor motes is a critical process in the development of WISENET. Great functionality and low power are two of the highest priorities in evaluating the fitness of both the microcontroller and the sensor candidates. WISENET is introduced to the new state-of-the-art Chipcon CC1010 microcontroller with integrated RF transceiver. After a little research it was decided the CC1010 would make the perfect microcontroller. It had the following feature list: .1. Optimized 8051-core
Most of the early embedded microcontrollers use processor architectures that were taken from eight bit microprocessors. This is the worst way because the processor addressing is usually not optimized for accessing local hardware registers and their individual bits. Two devices which buck this trend are the Microchip PIC and the Intel 8051. The 8051 was designed from the prespective of what a microcontroller is and what it has to do. It included in the basic design was 4K of Read Only Program Memory, 128 Bytes of Internal RAM, a USART and 32 I/O Pins. The only major problem with the 8051 architecture is the twelve clock cycles per instruction cycle. This has made the 8051 appear non-competitive to other microcontrollers which can have as few as one clock cycle per instruction cycles
2. Active (14.8 mA), Idle (2.9mA) and sleep (0.2mA) power modes
When it is in active mode it takel4.8 mA to work and in the idle state it take 2.9mA and in the sleep state it take 0.2mA for the proper working of the microcontroller.
3. 32 kB flash memory
Flash memory is a form of EEPROM_(Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read¬only Memory) that allows multiple memory locations to be erased or written in one programming operation. Normal EEPROM only allows one location at a time to be erased or written, meaning that flash can operate at higher effective speeds when the systems using it read and write to different locations at the same time. All types of flash memory and EEPROM wear out after a certain number of erase operations. Flash memory is made in two forms: NOR flash and NAND flash. This makes it suitable for storage of program code that needs to be infrequently updated, as in digital cameras and PDAs. However its I/O interface allows only sequential access to data. This makes it suitable for mass-storage devices such as PC cards and various memory cards, and somewhat less useful for computer memory.
4. 2 kB+128 bytes SRAM
5. Three channel 10-bit ADC
lObit Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) uses a four wire SPI interface. The 8515 processor has SPI hardware support built in and using it would have been fast with minimum software overhead. 10 bits is pretty high resolution. To avoid digital noise on the analog signals, added a separate +5V supply (78L05) devoted just to the ADC and the photodiodes used as inputs. The ground for all of the above was tied into one point where the power came into the regulator. With minimal bypass capacitors on the ADC inputs easily get stable readings
6. Four timers / Two PWM's
There are two essentially different versions of PWM: the original very lightweight window manager, and the newer Ion-based PWM2. PWM was the first window manager to implement "tabbed frames" or the back then unique feature allowing multiple client windows to be attached to the same frame. This feature helps keeping windows, especially the numerous xterms, organized. A look at the screenshots below might clarify the idea. Being a lightweight window manager with emphasis on usability, PWM discards some features common in window managers these days: only window shading in lieu of iconification is supported, there are no close and other window buttons (these actions are available conveniently through a menu), simple and elegant look instead of pixmapped themes, et cetera. PWM does have workspaces, menus and Window Maker dockapp support. It has pretty good keyboard support and almost all the functionality is configurable.
7. Fully integrated UHF RF transceiver (433 MHz / 868 MHz nominal)
The wireless transceiver contains at least two physical links, each with its own transmitter-receiver circuit in addition to digital and analog signal processing circuits to communicate with other wireless units using Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) protocol. The design approaches address the issues of noise interference between analog and digital subsystems, noise interference between two links on the same chip, and high-frequency self-test, measurement of funtional parameters (SNR, jitter, etc.), and interface between on-chip test facilities and external low-cost testers. The methodology is validated by a complete design, fabrication, and test of a case study selected in consultation with industry partners. _ Programmable output power (-20 to 10 dBm)
_ Low current consumption (11.9 mA for RX, 17.0 mA for TX at OdBm) _ RSSI output that can be sampled by the on-chip ADC
WISENET includes a socketed evaluation board (CC1010EB) and two evaluation modules (CC1010EM). CC1010 - The industry's first truly complete RF System-on-Chip solution! On a single die, the award winning 300 to 1000 MHz CMOS CC1000 RF Transceiver has been integrated with an industry standard 8051 microcontroller core. The CC1010 integrates a very low-power 300 to 1000 MHz RF transceiver and a 8051-compatible microcontroller that has 32 kB in-system programmable Flash, hardware DES encryption/decryption and a three channel 10-bit ADC. This means only a few external passive components are necessary to make a powerful embedded system with wireless communication capabilities, sensor interfacing possibilities and a lot of processing power.The evaluation board provided access to all of the analog and digital pins on the CC1010, as well as two serial ports, a parallel programming port, RF network analysis ports, and other peripherals. Each evaluation module featured the CC1010, RF network hardware, an antenna port, and an analog temperature sensor. The modules connected to the evaluation board via two sockets. These sockets also allowed the possibility of designing a custom expansion board.
WISENET is designed to measure light, temperature, and humidity. There are many digital temperature sensors available, but there is a much smaller selection of digital humidity and light sensors. A larger selection of analog sensors are available; however, analog sensors tended to require more power and be less precise than their digital counterparts, in addition to requiring more complex circuitry. For these reasons, digital sensors are given higher priority. Two new sensors provided the required functionality. First, Sensirion released the SHT11, a digital temperature and humidity sensor with ultra low power consumption (550 MicroA while measuring, 1 MicroA when in sleep mode), a 14 bit analog to digital converter, and the desired accuracy (±5% relative humidity, ±3°C). It also featured a simple serial interface. The light sensor chosen was the Texas Advanced Optoelectonic Solutions (TAOS) TSL2550 ambient light sensor with SMBus interface. This sensor also featured ultra-low power (600 MicroA active, 10 MicroA power down), a 12-bit analog to digital converter, and dual photo diodes. The TSL2550 uses both photo diodes to compensate for infrared light and to produce a measurement that approximates the human eye response.
The final stage of hardware design involved creating the Add-on module. The WISENET Add-On Module has the two digital sensors described above. The Sensirion SHT-11 humidity and temperature sensor has a 2-wire proprietary serial interface. The TAOS TSL2550 digital light sensor uses an SMBus serial interface. SMBus is a standardized 2-wire serial interface. The layout must be carefully designed such that the light, temperature and humidity sensor does not underneath the evaluation module when it is plugged into the board, which would make them useless.
5. SOFTWARE DESIGN-SHELF PRODUCTS
The server using for WISENET should have four commercial off the shelf applications installed on it that worked together to create the Data Analysis portion of the Server component.
Apache, MySQL, and PHP are open-source products freely available on the Internet. In addition, Chart-Director the trial version of the commercial application Chart-Director was used.
Apache is a standard web-server, which makes a web document available on the Internet. The Apache http server is a powerful, flexible, implements the latest protocols is highly configurable and extensible with third-party modules can be customised by writing 'modules' using the Apache module API provides full source code and comes with an unrestrictive license runs on Windows NT/9x, Netware 5.x and above, OS/2, and most versions of Unix, as well as several other operating systems is actively being developed encourages user feedback through new ideas, bug reports and patches implements many frequently requested features, including:
> DBM databases for authentication
Allows you to easily set up password-protected pages with enormous numbers of authorized users, without bogging down the server.
> Customized responses to errors and problems
Allows you to set up fdes, or even CGI scripts, which are returned by the server in response to errors and problems, e.g. setup a script to intercept 500 Server Errors and perform on-the-fly diagnostics for both users and yourself.
> Multiple Directorylndex directives
Allows you to say Directorylndex index.html index.cgi, which instructs the server to either send back index.html or run index.cgi when a directory URL is requested, whichever it finds in the directory.
> Unlimited flexible URL rewriting and aliasing
Apache has no fixed limit on the numbers of Aliases and Redirects which may be declared in the config files. In addition, a powerful rewriting engine can be used to solve most URL manipulation problems.
> Content negotiation
i.e. the ability to automatically serve clients of varying sophistication and HTML level compliance, with documents which offer the best representation of information that the client is capable of accepting.
> Virtual Hosts
A much requested feature, sometimes known as multi-homed servers. This allows the server to distinguish between requests made to different IP addresses or names (mapped to the same machine). Apache also offers dynamically configurable mass-virtual hosting.
> Configurable Reliable Piped Logs
You can configure Apache to generate logs in the format that you want. In addition, on most UNIX architectures, Apache can send log files to a pipe, allowing for log rotation, hit filtering, real-time splitting of multiple hosts into separate logs, and asynchronous DNS resolving on the fly.
PHP is a web programming language, which allows dynamic web-pages. It should also be designed to use along with a database and included many built-in functions for interfacing with MySQL.
MySQL is a database that can contain any type of data and is accessed by a TCP/IP (Internet) call.
Chart-Director is a program that generates a graph from raw data. It is available in many languages such as PHP, ASP, C++, and others. General features are:
> Fast and Efficient
Multi-threaded architecture specially designed for the demanding requirements of server side usage.
> Flexible
Object oriented API allows you to control and customize chart details, enabling you to design the charts you want.
> Comprehensive Chart Styles
Pie, bar, line, spline, step line, trend line, curve-fitting, inter-line coloring, area, scatter, bubble, box-whisker, HLOC, candlestick, simple gantt, radar, polar. XY axis swapping (rotated charts) and 3D effects.
> Layer Architecture
Synchronized chart layers allow chart styles to overlay for arbitrary combo chart and special effects. For example, box-whisker layers can be used to add error symbols to any XY chart styles, and scatter layers can be used to highlight data points with custom symbols
> CDML
The innovative Chart Director Mark Up Language (CDML) technology allows rich formatting of text with embedding icons and images. CDML is supported in all ChartDirector text positions, including chart titles, legend keys, axis labels, data labels, etc.
> Advance color system
In additional to ARGB colors (true color with alpha transparency), all objects in ChartDirector can be painted using "magic colors" - colors that depend on position. Generates image maps to support tool tips and other mouse interactions. Ideal for "drill-down" capabilities. Tool tips are customizable and can include custom text or data. Image maps are "open-ended" and can include user-defined regions, such as for company logos, icons and buttons.
6. SOFTWARE COMPONENTS - CUSTOM
WISENET is also composed of three custom software components: The Web program, WiseDB, and a port of Tiny OS.
WISENET's web program was written in PHP and utilized the Chart-Director charting software. The web application queried MySQL database for the data in the requested date range, then we use a Chart-Director to generate a graph of that data.
WiseDB is the custom software component that interfaced with the Sensor Mote Network via a serial link to the gateway mote and with the MySQL database via a TCP/IP link to the MySQL server application. Already we know about how WiseDB interacted with the rest of the system. WiseDB was written in C++ and utilized two open-source API's (application programming interface).
The final custom software component involves porting TinyOS to the CClOlO-based hardware platform described in the Hardware Design section. As previously mentioned, TinyOS is a real-time operating system designed for use in sensor network applications where low-power, limited resources and hard real-time constraints are critical parameters. After implementing all the software and embedding in a single system other important goal of WISENET is to completely replace the lower-layer functionality to permit existing higher-level components and applications to be immediately implemented on the new hardware platform without modification.
7. CONCLUSION
Wireless sensor networks are getting smaller and faster, increasing their potential applications in commercial, industrial, and residential environments. WISENET, as implemented, represents one commercial application. However, the limit of applications depends only up6n the sensors used and the interpretation of the data obtained. As the technology improves and new low-power digital sensors become more readily available, motes will increase functionality without increasing power consumption and will expand the wireless sensing market.
8. FUTURE SCOPE
There are a number of future extensions for this WISENET. A few are
We can expand the sensor mote network by adding more motes. This would allow the development and testing of advanced network-layer functions, such as multi-hop routing.
By creating a new PCB design that integrates the CC101 OEM design with, the sensors and power hardware on a single-board another interesting feature can be developed or adopt a standard expandable plug-in sensor interface in both hardware and software
In researching alternative energy sources to extend mote battery life. Possibilities include solar cells and rechargeable batteries.
9. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Atkinson, MySQL++: A C++ API for MySQL, vers 1.7.9,
<http://mysqldown 1 oads/api-mysql++. html>.
2. Gay Levis, The nesC Language: A Holistic Approach to Network Embedded
Systems,
<http://today.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/papers/nesc.pdf>.
3. Mainwaring, Polastre, et al. Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring,
http://cs.berkeley.edu/~polastre/papers/wsna02.pdf
4. Hill, Szewczyk, et al. System architecture directions for network sensors,
http://today.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/papers/tos.pdf
apache.oru
php.net
mysql.com
CONTENTS
1) INTRODUCTION 1
2) SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 2
2.1) PRJMARY SUBSYSTEMS 2
2.1.1) DATA ANALYSIS 2
2.1.2) DATA ACQUISITION 2
3) SYSTEM COMPONENTS 3
3.1) CLIENT 3
3.2) SERVER 4
3.3) SENSOR MOTES 6
4) HARDWARE DESIGN ž 7
5) SOFTWARE DESIGN-SHELF PRODUCTS , ž 12
6) SOFTWARE COMPONENTS-CUSTOM ž 16
7) CONCLUSION ž 17
8) FUTURE SCOPE , 18
9) BIBLOGRAOHY ž 19
Post: #6
[attachment=2522]

ABSTRACT

WISENET
is a wireless sensor network that monitors the environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and humidity. This network is comprised of nodes called motes that form an ad-hoc network to transmit this data to a computer that function as a server. The server stores the data in a database where it can later be retrieved and analyzed via a webbased interface. The network works successfully with an implementation of one sensor mote.

Introduction:
The technological drive for smaller devices using less power with greater functionality has created new potential applications in the sensor and data acquisition sectors. Low-power microcontrollers with RF transceivers and various digital and analog sensors allow a wireless, battery-operated network of sensor modules (motes) to acquire a wide range of data. The TinyOS is a real-time operating system to address the priorities of such a sensor network using low power, hard real-time constraints, and robust communications. The first goal of WISENET is to create a new hardware platform to take advantage of newer microcontrollers with greater functionality and more features. This involves selecting the hardware, designing the motes, and porting TinyOS. Once the platform is completed and TinyOS was ported to it, the next stage is to use this platform to create a small-scale system of wireless networked sensors.

System Description:
There are two primary subsystems (Data Analysis and Data
Acquisition) comprised of three major components (Client, Server, Sensor Mote
Network).
Primary Subsystems:
There are two top-level subsystems “
Data Analysis
Data Acquisition.

Data Analysis:
This subsystem is software-only (relative to WISENET). It relied on existing
Internet and web (HTTP) infrastructure to provide communications between the Client and Server
components. The focus of this subsystem was to selectively present the collected environmental data
to the end user in a graphical manner.
Data Acquisition:
The purpose of this subsystem is to collect and store environmental data for later
processing by the Data Analysis subsystem. This is a mix of both PC & embedded system software, as
well as embedded system hardware. It is composed of both the Server and Sensor Mote Network
components.
System Components:
System components are Client, Server, and Sensor Mote Network.
Client:
The Client component is necessary but external to the development of WISENET.
That is, any computer with a web browser and Internet access could be a Client. It served only as a
user interface to the Data Analysis subsystem.
USER SERVER
Requests WEB page Requested WEB page
USER SERVER
Requested WEB page Requests WEB page
Figure 2: Client Component Inputs/Outputs
Server:
The Server is a critical component as the link between the Data Acquisition and
Data Analysis subsystems. On the Data Analysis side, an web (HTTP) server hosting a web
application. When a page request came in, the web server executes the web application, which
retrieved data from the database, processes it, and returns a web page that the web server
transmitted to the Client. For the Data Acquisition system there is a daemon (WiseDB) running to
facilitate communication with the Sensor Mote Network.
CLIENT SENSOR NETWORK
WEB page Requests Data packets
(Via GATEWAY MOTE)
CLIENT SENSOR NETWORK

This daemon is responsible for collecting raw data packets from the Sensor
Mote Network. These packets are then processed to convert the raw data into meaningful
environmental data. This processed data is then inserted into the database. Thus the database is
the link between the Data Analysis and Data Acquisition subsystems. The Server also had the
potential to send commands to the Sensor Mote Network (via the gateway mote), although this
functionality was not explored in WISENET.
It should be noted that since the SQL database connections can be made via
TCP/IP, only the web server and web-program (see figure 4) needed to be located on the same
physical machine. The web server, the database, and WiseDB could all be on different physical
machines connected via a LAN or the Internet. This allows a flexible Server component
implementation that is useful during WISENET development.
CLIENT
SENSOR NETWORK
(GATEWAY MOTE)
Figure 4: Server Component Block Diagram
TCP/IP TCP/IP
SQL
Database
TinyOS
Daemon
WISEDB
WEB
Program
HTTP
Server

Sensor Motes:
The primary focus of WISENET is the development of the Sensor Mote
Network component. It is the component responsible for collecting and transmitting raw
environmental data to the Server. There is also the potential for the motes to receive commands
from the Server, although that functionality may not be implemented in WISENET. Uses for this
feature would include server-based synchronization and wireless network reprogramming.
SERVER PC SENSOR NETWORK
COMMANDS DATA PACKETS
(GATEWAY MOTE) SENSOR NETWORK
ONLY
DATA PACKETS
SERVER PC ENVIRONMENT
DATA PACKETS HUMIDITY, LIGHT etc.,
Figure 5: Sensor Mote Component Inputs/Outputs
This component consists of two parts. The first is the sensor mote. The primary
purpose of the sensor mote is to collect and transmit raw environmental data. When not doing this, it
went into a low-power idle mode to conserve energy. Another aspect of the sensor motes involved adhoc
networking and may be for multi-hop routing;
The gateway mote is the second part of the Sensor Mote Network. Its purpose is to
serve as the liaison between the Server and the Sensor Mote Network and deliver all the data packets
to WiseDB. In theory both standard and gateway motes could be implemented on the same hardware
PCB and with the same software. For WISENET, however, resource and time constraints necessitated
the use of slightly different hardware and software configurations for gateway versus standard motes,
as described below.
SENSOR MOTES
SENSOR NETWORK
INPUTS
&
OUTPUTS
8
Hardware Design:
The selection of components for the sensor motes is a critical process in
the development of WISENET. Great functionality and low power are two of the highest
priorities in evaluating the fitness of both the microcontroller and the sensor candidates.
WISENET is introduced to the new state-of-the-art Chipcon CC1010 microcontroller
with integrated RF transceiver. After a little research it was decided the CC1010 would
make the perfect microcontroller.
It had the following feature list:
1. Optimized 8051-core
2. Active (14.8 mA), Idle (29 _A) and sleep (0.2 _A) power modes
3. 32 kB flash memory
4. 2 kB +128 bytes SRAM
5. Three channel 10-bit ADC
6. Four timers / Two PWM's
7. Hardware DES encryption/decryption
8. Hardware random bit-generator
9. Fully integrated UHF RF transceiver (433 MHz / 868 MHz nominal)
_ Programmable output power (-20 to 10 dBm)
_ Low current consumption (11.9 mA for RX, 17.0 mA for TX at 0dBm)
_ RSSI output that can be sampled by the on-chip ADC
9
WISENET includes a socketed evaluation board (CC1010EB) and two
evaluation modules (CC1010EM). The evaluation board provided access to all of the
analog and digital pins on the CC1010, as well as two serial ports, a parallel
programming port, RF network analysis ports, and other peripherals. Each evaluation
module featured the CC1010, RF network hardware, an antenna port, and an analog
temperature sensor. The modules connected to the evaluation board via two TFM-D
sockets. These sockets also allowed the possibility of designing a custom expansion
board.
WISENET is designed to measure light, temperature, and humidity.
There are many digital temperature sensors available, but there is a much smaller
selection of digital humidity and light sensors. A larger selection of analog sensors are
available; however, analog sensors tended to require more power and be less precise than
their digital counterparts, in addition to requiring more complex circuitry. For these
reasons, digital sensors are given higher priority. Two new sensors provided the required
functionality. First, Sensirion released the SHT11, a digital temperature and humidity
sensor with ultra low power consumption (550 MicroA while measuring, 1 MicroA when
in sleep mode), a 14 bit analog to digital converter, and the desired accuracy (±5%
relative humidity, ±3ºC). It also featured a simple serial interface. The light sensor chosen
was the Texas Advanced Optoelectonic Solutions (TAOS) TSL2550 ambient light sensor
with SMBus interface. This sensor also featured ultra-low power (600 MicroA active, 10
MicroA power down), a 12-bit analog to digital converter, and dual photo diodes. The
TSL2550 uses both photo diodes to compensate for infrared light and to produce a
measurement that approximates the human eye response.
10
The final stage of hardware design involved creating the Add-on
module. The WISENET Add-On Module has the two digital sensors described above.
The Sensirion SHT-11 humidity and temperature sensor has a 2-wire proprietary serial
interface. The TAOS TSL2550 digital light sensor uses an SMBus serial interface.
SMBus is a standardized 2-wire serial interface. The layout must be carefully designed
such that the light, temperature and humidity sensors does not underneath the evaluation
module when it is plugged into the board, which would make them useless.
Software Design-shelf products:
The server using for WISENET should have four commercial off the shelf
applications installed on it that worked together to create the Data Analysis portion of the
Server component. Apache, MySQL, and PHP are open-source products freely available
on the Internet. In addition, Chart-Director the trial version of the commercial application
Chart-Director was used.
Apache is a standard web-server, which makes a web document available on the
Internet.
PHP is a web programming language, which allows dynamic web-pages. It
should also be designed to use along with a database and included many built-in
functions for interfacing with MySQL.
MySQL is a database that can contain any type of data and is accessed by a
TCP/IP (Internet) call.
Chart-Director is a program that generates a graph from raw data. It is
available in many languages such as PHP, ASP, C++, and others.

Software Components “ Custom:
WISENET is also composed of three custom software components:
The Web program, WiseDB, and a port of TinyOS.
WISENETâ„¢s web program was written in PHP and utilized the Chart-
Director charting software. The web application queried MySQL database for the data in
the requested date range, then we use a Chart-Director to generate a graph of that data.
WiseDB is the custom software component that interfaced with the
Sensor Mote Network via a serial link to the gateway mote and with the MySQL database
via a TCP/IP link to the MySQL server application. Already we know about how
WiseDB interacted with the rest of the system. WiseDB was written in C++ and utilized
two open-source APIâ„¢s (application programming interface).
The final custom software component involves porting TinyOS to the
CC1010-based hardware platform described in the Hardware Design section. As
previously mentioned, TinyOS is a real-time operating system designed for use in sensor
network applications where low-power, limited resources and hard real-time constraints
are critical parameters. After implementing all the software and embedding in a single
system other important goal of WISENET is to completely replace the lower-layer
functionality to permit existing higher-level components and applications to be
immediately implemented on the new hardware platform without modification.
Future Work:
There are a number of future extensions for this WISENET. A few are:
We can expand the sensor mote network by adding more motes. This
would allow the development and testing of advanced network-layer functions, such as
multi-hop routing.
By creating a new PCB design that integrates the CC1010EM design with
the sensors and power hardware on a single-board another interesting feature can be
developed or adopt a standard expandable plug-in sensor interface in both hardware and
software
In researching alternative energy sources to extend mote battery life.
Possibilities include solar cells and rechargeable batteries.
Conclusions:
Wireless sensor networks are getting smaller and faster, increasing their
potential applications in commercial, industrial, and residential environments.
WISENET, as implemented, represents one commercial application. However, the limit
of applications depends only upon the sensors used and the interpretation of the data
obtained. As the technology improves and new low-power digital sensors become more
readily available, motes will increase functionality without increasing power
consumption and will expand the wireless sensing market.
13
References:
1.Atkinson, MySQL++: A C++ API for MySQL, vers 1.7.9,
<http://mysqldownloads/api-mysql++. html>.
2.Gay Levis, The nesC Language: A Holistic Approach to Network Embedded
Systems,
<http://today.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/papers/nesc.pdf>.
3.Mainwaring, Polastre, et al. Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring,
http://cs.berkeley.edu/~polastre/papers/wsna02.pdf
4.Hill, Szewczyk, et al. System architecture directions for network sensors,
http://today.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/papers/tos.pdf
5.Torvmark, Application Note AN017: Low Power Systems Using the CC1010,
http://chipconfiles/AN_017_Low_Power_Systems_Using_The_CC101
0_1_1.pdf
6.Ye, Heidemann, et al. An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor
Networks,
Post: #7
please send full report on wisenet
Post: #8
WISENET is a wireless sensor network that monitors the environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and humidity. This network is comprised of nodes called “motes” that form an ad-hoc network to transmit this data to a computer that function as a server. The server stores the data in a database where it can later be retrieved and analyzed via a web-based interface. The network works successfully with an implementation of one sensor mote.
Introduction to wireless Sensor Networks:
The last few years have seen the emergence of numerous new wireless technologies, some of which (for example IEEE 802.11b, Bluetooth, etc...) have reached the market recently. While the general trend is to offer higher and higher data rates, there are many existing and new applications that do not require such a high bandwidth, but would strongly benefit from a wireless communication link. Examples of such applications are wireless sensor networks.
In this perspective, the Microelectronics Division has launched a project called WISENET. Its main objective is to develop a low-power wireless ad-hoc network made of many distributed microsensors that are energetically autonomous (usually battery operated) and able to communicate amongst them and with the external world. WISENET will enable the monitoring and the control of physical and environmental parameters for a variety of applications spanning the home, the office, the clinic, the factory, in vehicle, over metropolitan area, and the global environment. For example, WISENET will monitor security and safety in the future homes and offices
The technological drive for smaller devices using less power with greater functionality has created new potential applications in the sensor and data acquisition sectors. Low-power microcontrollers with RF transceivers and various digital and analog sensors allow a wireless, battery-operated network of sensor modules (“motes”) to acquire a wide range of data. The TinyOS is a real-time operating system to address the priorities of such a sensor network using low power, hard real-time constraints, and robust communications.
The first goal of WISENET is to create a new hardware platform to take advantage of newer microcontrollers with greater functionality and more features. This involves selecting the hardware, designing the motes, and porting TinyOS. Once the platform is completed and TinyOS was ported to it, the next stage is to use this platform to create a small-scale system of wireless networked sensors.
Conclusions to Wisenet:
Wireless sensor networks are getting smaller and faster, increasing their potential applications in commercial, industrial, and residential environments. WISENET, as implemented, represents one commercial application. However, the limit of applications depends only upon the sensors used and the interpretation of the data obtained. As the technology improves and new low-power digital sensors become more readily available, motes will increase functionality without increasing power consumption and will expand the wireless sensing market.
Post: #9
[attachment=8877]
ABSTRACT
WISENET is a wireless sensor network that monitors theenvironmental conditions such as light, temperature, and humidity. Thisnetwork is comprised of nodes called “motes” that form an ad-hoc networkto transmit this data to a computer that function as a server. The server storesthe data in a database where it can later be retrieved and analyzed via a web-based interface. The network works successfully with an implementation ofone sensor mote.
Introduction:
The technological drive for smaller devices using less power with greaterfunctionality has created new potential applications in the sensor and data acquisitionsectors. Low-power microcontrollers with RF transceivers and various digital and analogsensors allow a wireless, battery-operated network of sensor modules (“motes”) toacquire a wide range of data. The TinyOS is a real-time operating system to address thepriorities of such a sensor network using low power, hard real-time constraints, androbust communications.The first goal of WISENET is to create a new hardware platform totake advantage of newer microcontrollers with greater functionality and more features.This involves selecting the hardware, designing the motes, and porting TinyOS. Once theplatform is completed and TinyOS was ported to it, the next stage is to use this platformto create a small-scale system of wireless networked sensors.
System Description:There are two primary subsystems (Data Analysis and DataAcquisition) comprised of three major components (Client, Server, Sensor MoteNetwork).
Primary Subsystems:There are two top-level subsystems –Data AnalysisData Acquisition
.Data Analysis:This subsystem is software-only (relative to WISENET). It relied on existingInternet and web (HTTP) infrastructure to provide communications between the Client and Servercomponents. The focus of this subsystem was to selectively present the collected environmental datato the end user in a graphical manner.
Data Acquisition:The purpose of this subsystem is to collect and store environmental data for laterprocessing by the Data Analysis subsystem. This is a mix of both PC & embedded system software, aswell as embedded system hardware. It is composed of both the Server and Sensor Mote Networkcomponents.
System Components:
Post: #10
presented by:
Deepika Agrawal
Animesh Kar

[attachment=9232]
Wireless Sensor Network (WiSeNet)
Introduction

 A large number of low cost, low power, multifunctional, and small sensor nodes.
 Sensor nodes consist of sensing, data processing and communicating components
 Collaborative effort of a large number of nodes.
 Primarily focus on power consumption.
The difference between sensor network and ad hoc network
 Sensor nodes:
 Number of sensor nodes is larger
 Densely deployed, prone to failures
 The topology of a sensor network changes very frequently
 Mainly use broadcast
 Limited in power
 No global identification
Sensor network communication architecture
 Data Aggregation - A technique used to solve the implosion and overlap problems in data-centric routing
 Data coming from multiple sensor nodes with the same attribute of phenomenon are aggregated
 The sensor nodes are usually scattered in a sensor field
 Sensor nodes can collect data and route data back to sink
 The sink may communicate with the task manager node via Internet or Satellite
Factors influencing sensor network design
 Hardware constraints
 Scalability
 Production costs
 Fault tolerance
 Sensor network topology
 Environment
 Transmission media
 Power consumption
Hardware constraint
 Four basic hardware components:
 Sensing unit
 Processing unit
 Transceiver unit
 Power unit
Fault Tolerance
 Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures
 The protocols may be designed to address the level of fault tolerance
Post: #11
presented by:
Pritam Kumat

[attachment=9376]
Wireless Sensor Networks
Introduction
WSN are used to collect data from the environment
Consists of sensors which are distributed in an ad hoc manner
Monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants
Comparison with ad hoc networks
Use broadcast communication while ad hoc networks use point-to-point
Sensor nodes may not have global ID because of the large amount of overhead and large number of sensors
Architecture
Characteristic of Wireless Sensor Network
Unique characteristics of a WSN include:
Limited power they can harvest or store
Ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions
Ability to cope with node failures
Dynamic network topology
Large scale of deployment
Unattended operation

Small-scale sensor nodes
Routing Techniques
Sensor Node
Characteristic
Small physical size and low power consumption
Concurrency-intensive operation
What are motes?
Motes mainly consist of three parts:-
Consists of a low cost and power computer.
The computer monitors one or more sensors.
Sensors may be for temperature, light, sound, position, acceleration, vibration, stress, weight, pressure, humidity, etc.
The computer connects to the outside world with a radio link.
WSN node components
Low-power processor.
Limited processing.
Memory.
Limited storage.
Radio.
Low-power.
Low data rate.
Limited range.
Sensors.
Scalar sensors: temperature, light, etc.
Cameras, microphones.
Power.
Mote Architecture
A very low cost low power computer
Monitors one or more sensors
A Radio Link to the outside world
Are the building blocks of Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensors
Mica Motes
Mica Mote:
Processor: 4Mhz , 8 bit
Memory: 128KB Flash and 4KB RAM
Radio: 916Mhz and 40Kbits/second.
Transmission range: 200 Feet
operating System: small, open source and energy efficient. E.g. TinyOS,EYEOS
One Example Sensor Board - MTS310
Hardware Setup Overview
WSN Applications
Environmental/Habitat monitoring
Area monitoring
Vehicle Detection
Military surveillance
Agriculture
Medical monitoring
Power monitoring
Vehicle sensoring
FireBug
Wildfire Instrumentation System Using Networked Sensors
Firebugs: GPS-enabled, wireless thermal sensor motes based on TinyOS that self-organize into networks for collecting real time data in wild fire environments
Software architecture: Several interacting layers (Sensors, Processing of sensor data, Command center)
Haitat Monitoring on Great Duck Island
Intel Research Laboratory at Berkeley initiated a collaboration with the College of the Atlantic in Bar Harbor and the University of California at Berkeley to deploy wireless sensor networks on Great Duck Island, Maine (in 2002)
Monitor the microclimates in and around nesting burrows used by the Leach's Storm Petrel
Sensors installed inside burrows
Goal : habitat monitoring kit for researchers worldwide
Advantages
1. It avoids hell lot of wiring.
2. It can accommodate new devices at any time.
3. Its flexible to go through physical partitions.
4. It can be accessed through a centralized monitor.
Post: #12
[attachment=10278]
Introduction
The technological drive for smaller devices using less power with greater
functionality has created new potential applications in the sensor and data
acquisition sectors. Low-power microcontrollers with RF transceivers and
various digital and analog sensors allow a wireless, battery-operated network of sensor modules (“motes”) to acquire a wide range of data. The TinyOS is a real-time operating system to address the priorities of such a sensor network using low power, hard real-time constraints, and robust communications.
The first goal of WISENET is to create a new hardware platform
to take advantage of newer microcontrollers with greater functionality and
more features.This involves selecting the hardware, designing the motes, and porting TinyOS.Once the platform is completed and TinyOS was ported to it, the next stage is to use this platform to create a small-scale system of wireless networked sensors.
wisenet
WISENET is a wireless sensor network that monitors the environmental
conditions such as light, temperature, and humidity. This network is
comprised of nodes called “motes” that form an ad-hoc network to transmit is data to a computer that function as a server. The server stores the data in a database where it can later be retrieved and analyzed via a webbased interface.
The network works successfully with an implementation of one sensor mote.
System Description
There are two primary subsystems (Data Analysis and Data Acquisition)
comprised of three major components (Client, Server, Sensor Mote Network).
Primary Subsystems:
There are two top-level subsystems –
Data Analysis
Data Acquisition.
Data Analysis:
This subsystem is software-only (relative to WISENET). It relied on existing
Internet and web (HTTP) infrastructure to provide communications between the client and server components. The focus of this subsystem was to selectively present the collected environmental data to the end user in a graphical manner.
Data Acquisition:
The purpose of this subsystem is to collect and store environmental data for later processing by the Data Analysis subsystem. This is a mix of both PC & embedded system software, as well as embedded system hardware. It is composed of both the Server and Sensor Mote Network components.
System Components
System components are Client, Server, and Sensor Mote Network.
Client:
The Client component is necessary but external to the development of
WISENET.That is, any computer with a web browser and Internet access could be a Client. It served only as a user interface to the Data Analysis subsystem.
Server:
The Server is a critical component as the link between the Data Acquisition and Data Analysis subsystems. On the Data Analysis side, an web (HTTP) server hosting a web application. When a page request came in, the web server executes the web application, which retrieved data from the database, processes it, and returns a web page that the web server transmitted to the Client. For the data acquisition system there is a daemon (WiseDB) running to facilitate
communication with the Sensor Mote Network. This daemon is responsible for collecting raw data packets from the Sensor Mote Network. These packets are then processed to convert the raw data into meaningful environmental data. This processed data is then inserted into the database. Thus the database is the link between the Data Analysis and Data Acquisition subsystems. The Server also had the potential to send commands to the Sensor Mote Network (via the gateway mote), although this functionality was not explored in WISENET.It should be noted that since the SQL database connections can be made via TCP/IP, only the web server and web-program needed to be located on the same physical machine.
The web server, the database, and WiseDB could all be on different physical
machines connected via a LAN or the Internet. This allows a flexible Server
component implementation that is useful during WISENET development.
Post: #13
to get information about the topic WISENET full report,ppt, related topic refer the link bellow

http://seminarprojectst-wisenet-wireless-sensor-network-ppt?pid=63045#pid63045
http://seminarprojectst-wisenet-wireless-sensor-network-download-seminars-report

http://seminarprojectst-wisenet-wireless-sensor-network-download-seminars-report?page=13

http://seminarprojectst-wisenet--2624

http://seminarprojectst-wisenet-wireless-sensor-network-download-seminars-report?page=9

http://seminarprojectst-wisenet-wireless-sensor-network-ppt

http://seminarprojectst-wisenet-wireless-sensor-network-download-seminars-report?page=8

http://seminarprojectst-wisenet--2624?page=3

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http://seminarprojectst-wisenet--2624?page=2
Post: #14
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