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MULTI TOUCH A SEMINAR REPORT
Post: #1
Star 

[attachment=4846]
This article is presented by:
ALIKUTTY K A
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,
KOCHI-682022


MULTI TOUCH

ABSTRACT
Multi-touch technology is an advanced human-computer interaction technique that recogonises multiple touch points and also includes the hardware devices that implement it, which allow users to compute without conventional input devices . Multi-touch consists of a touch screen (screen, table, wall, etc.) or touchpad, as well as a software that recognizes multiple simultaneous touch points, as opposed to the standard touchscreen which recognizes only one touch point at a time. Multi touch using Frustrated Total Internal Reflection is a simple, inexpensive, and scalable technique for enabling high-resolution multi- touch sensing on rear-projected interactive surfaces. Different applications for multi-touch interfaces both exist and are being proposed. Some uses are individualistic eg iPhone, iPod touch, MacBook Pro, MacBook Air. The use of multi-touch technology is expected to rapidly become common place.
TOUCH SCREEN
A touch screen is a display which can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. The term generally refers to touch or contact to the display of the device by a finger or hand. Touch screens can also sense other passive objects, such as a stylus. However, if the object sensed is active, as with a light pen, the term touch screen is generally not applicable. The thumb rule is: if you can interact with the display using your finger, it is likely a touch screen - even if you are using a stylus or some other object. Up until recently, most touch screens could only sense one point of contact at a time, and few have had the capability to sense how hard one is touching. This is starting to change with the emergence of multi-touch technology - a technology that was first seen in the early 1980s, but which is now appearing in commercially available systems. The touch screen has two main attributes. First, it enables you to interact with what is displayed directly on the screen, where it is displayed, rather than indirectly with a mouse or a touchpad. Secondly, it lets one do so without requiring any intermediate device, again, such as a stylus that needs to be held in the hand. Such displays can be attached to computers or, as terminals, to networks. They also play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such as the personal digital assistant , satellite navigation devices and mobile phone
TECHNOLOGIES
There are a number of types of touch screen technology
Resistive
A resistive touch screen panel is composed of several layers. The most important are two thin metallic electrically conductive and resistive layers separated by thin space. When some object touches this kind of touch panel, the layers are connected at certain point; the panel then electrically acts similar to two voltage dividers with connected outputs. This causes a change in the electrical current which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing. Surface acoustic wave SAW technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touchscreen panel. When the panel is touched, a portion of the wave is absorbed. This change in the ultrasonic waves registers the position of the touch event and sends this information to the controller for processing. Surface wave touch screen panels can be damaged by outside elements. Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touch screen.
Capacitive
A capacitive touch screen panel is coated with a material, typically indium tin oxide that conducts a continuous electrical current across the sensor. The sensor therefore exhibits a precisely controlled field of stored electrons in both the horizontal and vertical axes - it achieves capacitance. The human body is also an electrical device which has stored electrons and therefore also exhibits capacitance. When the sensor's 'normal' capacitance field (its reference state) is altered by another capacitance field, i.e., someone's finger, electronic circuits located at each corner of the panel measure the resultant 'distortion' in the sine wave characteristics of the reference field and send the information about the event to the controller for mathematical processing. Capacitive sensors can either be touched with a bare finger or with a conductive device being held by a bare hand. Capacitive touchscreens are not affected by outside elements and have high clarity.


Post: #2
Can U plz send me d ppt of MULTI-TOUCH?????? Its urgent...plzzzzz..........
Post: #3
[attachment=4844]
This article is presented by:
Binay Kumar jha
MULTI TOUCH

INTRODUCTION(TOUCH SCREEN)
A touch screen is a display which can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area.
One point of contact at a time.


INTRODUCTION…..

Multi-touch technology is an advanced human-computer interaction technique that recogonises multiple touch points and also includes the hardware devices that implement it, which allow users to compute without conventional input devices .
Multi-touch technology dates back to 1982, when the University of Toronto developed the first finger pressure multi-touch.
In 1984 Bell Labs engineered a multi-touch screen that could manipulate images with more than one hand.
In1991 Pierre Wellner published a paper on his multi-touch “Digital Desk”, which supported multi-finger and pinching motions.
In 1998, Fingerworks, produced a line of multi-touch products including the iGesture Pad and the TouchStream keyboard.
Post: #4
[attachment=9122]
MULTI TOUCH SCREENS
Abstract

The way we use computers today will soon change. The technology of the future will allow us to interact with the computer on a whole different level from what we are used to. The tools we use to communicate with the computer – such as the mouse and the keyboard, will soon disappear and be replaced with tools more comfortable and more natural for the human being to use. That future is already here. This report describes about the multi touch technology and their applications.
The increase rate of how touch screen hardware and applications are used is growing rapidly and will break new grounds in years to come. This new technology requires new ways for detecting inputs from the user – inputs which will be made out of onscreen gestures rather than by pressing of buttons or rolling mouse wheels.
The traditional way of interacting with a computer is by using a mouse or a key board. We provide the computer with inputs more or less by the use of buttons. Regardless of the input type, the computer can more or less only handle one input at the time which makes the input handling and sorting very easy.
However, multi touch is as far from single input handling as one can come. The amount of concurrent events in this interface is limited only by the data type holding the number of finger inputs. The amount of simultaneous users is pretty much unlimited in the same way, which of course in handy for larger scale display systems. That amount of potential synchronous inputs requires new ways to detect the inputs. Since they aren’t the kind of “on/off” inputs we are used in a traditional sense, they are needs for new ways interpret and analyze the input type and gesture(s) they make out.
For an example of where using more than one button or device at a time is important in the physical world, just think of having to type without being able to push the SHIFT key at the same time as the character that you want to appear in upper case. There are a number of cases where this can be of use in touch interfaces.
History
Multi-touch technology dates back to 1982, when Nimish Mehta at the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO developed the first finger pressure multi-touch display.
In 1983, Bell labs at Murray hill published a comprehensive discussion of touch-screen based interfaces. In 1984 Bell Labs engineered a touch screen that could change images with more than one hand. The group at the University of Toronto stopped working on hardware and moved on to software and interfaces, expecting that they would have access to the Bell Labs work.
A breakthrough occurred in 1991, when Pierre Wellner published a paper on his multi-touch “Digital Desk”, which supported multi-finger and pinching motions.
Various companies expanded upon these discoveries in the beginning of the twenty-first century. Mainstream exposure to multi-touch technology occurred in the year 2007, when Apple unveiled the iPhone and Microsoft debuted surface computing. The iPhone in particular has spawned a wave of interest in multi-touch computing, since it permits greatly increased user interaction on a small scale. More robust and customizable multi-touch and gesture-based solutions are beginning to become available, among them True Touch, created by Cypress semiconductor. The use of multi-touch technology is expected to rapidly become common place. For example, touch screen telephones are expected to increase from 200,000 shipped in 2006, to 21 million in 2012.
Introduction
Touch screen

All of the touch screens basically work like a mouse. Once the software driver for the touch screen is installed, the touch screen emulates mouse functions. Touching the screen is basically the same as clicking your mouse at the same point at the screen. When you touch the touch screen, the mouse cursor will move to that point and make a mouse click. You can tap the screen twice to perform a double click, and you can also drag your finger across the touch screen to perform drag-and-drops. The touch screens will normally emulate left mouse clicks. Through software, you can also switch the touch screen to perform right mouse clicks instead.
Multi touch screen
Multi-touch consists of a touch screen (screen, overlay, table, wall, etc.) or touchpad, as well as software that recognizes multiple simultaneous touch points, as opposed to the single touch screen (e.g. computer touchpad, ATM), which recognizes only one touch point. This effect is achieved through a variety of means, including: heat, finger pressure, high capture rate cameras, infrared light, optic capture, tuned electromagnetic induction, ultrasonic receivers, transducer microphones, laser rangefinders, and shadow capture.
Post: #5
[attachment=9327]
MULTI TOUCH
Multi-touch refers to a touch system's ability to simultaneously detect and resolve a minimum of 3+ touch points. All 3 or more touches are detected and fully resolved resulting in a dramatically improved touch experience. Multi-touch is considered by many to become a widely-used interface mainly because of the speed, efficiency and intuitiveness of the technology.
Multi-touch technology is an advanced human-computer interaction technique that recognizes multiple touch points and also includes the hardware devices that implement it, which allow users to compute without conventional input devices.
Multi-touch consists of a touch screen (screen, table, wall, etc.) or touchpad, as well as a software that recognizes multiple simultaneous touch points, as opposed to the standard touchscreen which recognizes only one touch point at a time.
The most popular form are mobile devices (iPhone, iPod Touch), tables (Microsoft Surface) and walls. Both touchtables and touch walls project an image through acrylic or glass, and then back-light the image with LEDs
IMPLEMENTATION
When a finger or an object touches the surface, causing the light to scatter, the reflection is caught with sensors or cameras that send the data to software which dictates response to the touch, depending on the type of reflection measured.
Touch surfaces can also be made pressure-sensitive by the addition of a pressure-sensitive coating that flexes differently depending on how firmly it is pressed, altering the reflection.
Handheld technologies use a panel that carries an electrical charge. When a finger touches the screen, the touch disrupts the panel's electrical field. The disruption is registered and sent to the software, which then initiates a response to the gesture.
In the past few years, several companies have released products that use multi-touch. In an attempt to make the expensive technology more accessible, hobbyists have also published methods of constructing DIY touch screens.
HOW MULTI TOUCH WORKS
Tracking Fingers: The most advanced multi-touch screens respond to the
motion and pressure of numerous fingers. In the Perceptive
Pixel design projectors send images through an acrylic screen onto
the surface facing the viewer. When fingers or other objects (such
as a stylus) touch the surface, infrared light shone inside the
acrylic sheet by LEDs scatters off the fingers and back to sensors.
Software interprets the data as finger movements. Tapping the
screen brings up command menus when desired.
To create a signal, LEDs bounce light through the acrylic sheet.
No light escapes. But if a finger is placed against the face light
will scatter off it toward the sensors. Also, a pressure-sensitive
coating flexes when pressed firmly or lightly, making the
scattered fingertip signal appear slightly brighter or dimmer,
which the computer interprets as more or less pressure. 
Touch Table :
A projector inside Microsoft’s multi-touch table, called Surface,
sends imagery up through the acrylic top. An LED shines
near-infrared light up as well, which reflects off objects or
fingers back to various infrared cameras; a computer monitors
the reflections to track finger motions.
Apple has revealed some clues about how the touch screen works. A panel under the screen glass senses your touch using an electrical field. The panel then sends this reading to an LCD below it.
In other words, your finger changes the electrical charge, which in turn feeds the phone operating system and determines which pixels have changed and which activities have been triggered.
Every touch screen phone uses a similar method, but what makes the iPhone unique is how the iPhone OS responds so quickly to swipes, pinches, and finger presses -- so fast that there is a burgeoning market for high-quality iPhone games that some say rival even the mighty Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable.
TECHNOLOGIES
From physical point of view there are several multi touch technologies, they are
Resistive touch screens are composed of two flexible sheets coated with a resistive material and separated by an air gap or microdots. When contact is made to the surface of the touch screen, the two sheets are pressed together. On these two sheets there are horizontal and vertical lines that when pushed together, register the precise location of the touch. Because the touch screen senses input from contact with nearly any object (finger, stylus/pen, palm) resistive touch screens are a type of "passive" technology.
Capacitive sensing is a technology based on capacitive coupling that is used in many different types of sensors, including those for detecting and measuring. Capacitive sensors are used in devices such as laptop track pads, MP3 players, computer monitors, cell phones and others. More and more design engineers are selecting capacitive sensors for their versatility, reliability and robustness, unique human-device interface and cost reduction over mechanical switches.
Projected Capacitive Touch (PCT) technology is a capacitive technology which permits more accurate and flexible operation, by etching the conductive layer. Due to the top layer of a PCT being glass, PCT is a more robust solution versus resistive touch technology. Depending on the implementation, an active or passive stylus can be used instead of or in addition to a finger.
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) is an acoustic wave traveling along the surface of a material exhibiting elasticity, with an amplitude that typically decays exponentially with depth into the substrate.
Infrared touch screen uses an array of X-Y infrared LED and photodetectorpairs around the edges of the screen to detect a disruption in the pattern of LED beams. These LED beams cross each other in vertical and horizontal patterns. This helps the sensors pick up the exact location of the touch. A major benefit of such a system is that it can detect essentially any input including a finger, gloved finger, stylus or pen. It is generally used in outdoor applications.
Optical touch optical sensors track the movement of any object close to the surface by detecting the interruption of an infra-red light source. The light is emitted in a plane across the surface of the screen and can be either active (infra-red LED) or passive (special reflective surfaces).
Post: #6
presented by S. BALA BRAHMAM

[attachment=9505]
Introduction
WHAT IS TOUCH-SCREEN?

 A touch-screen is a display which can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. The term generally refers to touch or contact to the display of the device by a finger or hand.
 Types of Touch-screen Technologies
 Resistive
 Surface acoustic wave
 Capacitive
 Infrared
 Optical imaging
 Dispersive signal technology
WHAT IS MULTI TOUCH?
 Multi-touch is a human-computer interaction technique and the hardware devices that implement it, which allow users to compute without conventional input devices e.g., mouse, keyboard.
HISTORY
 Multi-touch technology dates back to 1982, when the University of Toronto developed the first finger pressure multi-touch display.
 Bell Labs: In 1984 Bell Labs engineered a multi-touch screen that could manipulate images with more than one hand.
 Fingerworks: In 1998, FW, a Newyork-based company run by University of Delaware academics John Elias and Wayne Westerman, produced a line of multi-touch products including the iGesture Pad and the TouchStream keyboard.
 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
 Microsoft Surface
 Perceptive Pixel
 Apple iPhone, iPod touch, MacBook Air, and MacBook Pro
 FUTURE
 Enhanced dining experience
 Concierge service
 Governmental use
 Concept mapping
 Collaboration and instruction on Interactive Whiteboards
 PRINCIPLE
FRUSTRATED TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
Total internal reflection
The critical angle is given by
 Total Internal Reflection
 Design (Requirements)
HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
Acrylic with LEDs at its edges
Software requirements
Programming languages like
Processing (P5), Flash, C, C++, Java, etc.
IR rays obtained on a camera
Working
Frustrated Total Internal Reflection
(a)IR view of a touch
(b)Pixel positions located on screen
Advantages
 Multi touch based on FTIR is a simple and inexpensive technique
 Scalable technique
 True touch image information
 scalable to large installations
 Larger shared-display systems
Applications
 Personal computers, Laptops, Tabletops, Graphics Tablets.
 It supports both LCD and CRT monitors.
 Telephones ,Watches ,PDAs, Mobile phones.
 Advanced multi touch Gaming with high graphics support.
 Government offices and business purposes.
 An enhanced multimedia experience including audio,video and photo sharing.
 Enhanced dining experience Applications for a multi touch display are never ending . We can even convert computer to a mere piece of display attached to a wall or a table.
Conclusion
 Multi touch provides any resolution displays supported with high graphics. The applications being both made and proposed are plenty in number.
Post: #7
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Post: #8
pls snd report for multitouch system..urgent
 

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