1.1 PRESENT SCENARIO
According to official data by recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) release, about 74 million barrels of fossil oil, corresponding to about four-billion gallons of gasoline, are consumed in our planet per day. The combustion of such an enormous amount of fossil fuel per day has caused increasingly alarming environmental problems, such as:
1. Measurable emission in our atmosphere of the largest amount of carcinogenic and other toxic substances;
2. Measurable oxygen depletion in our planet due to the fact that the sum of the oxygen emitted in the combustion exhaust and that recycled by plants from the emitted CO2 is smaller than the oxygen used in the combustion (negative oxygen balance);
3. Measurable increase of carbon dioxide of dramatic proportions, with potentially catastrophic climactic changes; and other environmental problems, such as the production of poisonous NOx.
As a result of studies initiated in the early 1980's at Harvard University under DOE support has recently developed a new technology, called PlasmaArcFlow, for the production of environmentally acceptable combustible gases, called magnegases. The new technology is primarily conceived to recycle non-radioactive liquid feedstock, such as antifreeze waste, engine oil waste, town sewage, as well as crude oil, etc., by making the liquid to flow through a submerged electric arc between submerged electrodes within a metal vessel. The arc decomposes the liquid into its atomic constituents, ionizes the atoms, and forms plasma in the immediate vicinity of the tip
of the electrodes at about 10,000 degree Fahrenheit. The new technology then moves the plasma away from the arc, and controls its recombination into magnegases which
bubble to the liquid surface where they are collected with various means, are pumped into conventional, low or high pressure, gas storage tanks, and then used for metal cutting, heating, cooking, automotive, and any other fuel application.
The MagneGas technology originated from the vision of President, now Nobel Laureate Jimmy Carter, who’s Administration, under his guidance, solicited the U. S.
Department of Energy to invite Prof. Ruggero Maria Santilli in the late 1970's, then at Harvard University, to apply for research grant for the development of new clean energies and fuels. The invitation was the result of the fact that Prof. Santilli was already known at that time for his research in surpassing established doctrines.
In 1979, jointly with senior mathematicians at Harvard, Prof. Santilli became the Co Principal Investigator of the following DOE research grants ER-78-S-02-47420.A000,
AS02-78ER04 (742, DE-AC02-80ER10651, DE-AC02-80ER-10651.A001, and DE-AC02-80ER10651.A002, under administration by Harvard University. Still as of today, Prof. Santilli remains deeply grateful to President Carter and his Administration for their vision which permitted the birth of basic advances.
By the late 1970s, all energies and fuels predicted by quantum mechanics had been essentially discovered. Therefore, the above research grants were used for the construction of a generalization of quantum mechanics today known as Hadronic mechanics, a name indicating the primary applicability of the new mechanics in the
interior of "hadrons" (which are all strongly interacting particles such as protons and neutrons), as well as to systems possessing similar physical characteristics (technically characterized by nonlocal, nonlinear and no potential interactions due to the mutual overlapping of the wave packets of particles at short distances which are beyond any home of treatment via quantum mechanics due to its strictly local, linear and potential structure).Since there cannot be really new mechanics for nonlocal, nonlinear and no potential systems without surpassing the pre-existing mathematics for local, linear and potential systems, and since there cannot be really new mathematics without new numbers, Prof. Santilli's primary effort was the search of new numbers, today known as Santilli iso-, geno-, hyper- and isodual numbers, from which new mechanics and, consequently, new industrial applications, can follow uniquely and unambiguously.
Upon termination of the DOE support, in January 1984 Prof. Santilli assumed the position of President of the Institute for Basic Research, then in a Victorian house located on Harvard's grounds, and jointly entered into a scientific consulting agreement with a private corporation for the development of the industrial applications of Hadronic mechanics to new clean energies and fuels. According to this agreement, the private corporation provided Prof. Santilli with his salary, office facilities and research support. In turn, Prof. Santilli systematically assigned to this corporation all intellectual rights resulting from his research, a condition which is still
in effect at this writing. Following the signature of the consulting agreement of 1984, the first experimental tests on new energies and fuels based on Hadronic mechanics were conducted in the early 1990s. The first patent application was filed in June 20, 1994, on the basic equipment of the new technology, scientifically called hadronic reactors (because based on hadronic mechanics) and industrially known as PlasmaArcFlow Recyclers.
The first patent application on the new chemical species of Santilli electro-magnecules, from which the new technology received its name, was filed on January 7, 1997. Numerous industrial developments followed since that time, with a total investment to date in excess of five million dollars. The technology is today protected by numerous patents and patent applications in the U.S.A. and abroad.